• 2/2014: Music Historiography

    2/2014: Music Historiography

    Preface

    ČIERNA, Alena: Preface
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 40, 2014, No. 2, pp. 97 – 98

    Studies

    CHALUPKA, Ľubomír: Slovak Composers and Their Contacts with Polish Music – Autobiographical Moments in Early Works by Tadeáš Salva and Self-Expression in the Mature Creation of Roman Berger
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 40, 2014, No. 2, pp. 99 – 112

    For the generation of Slovak music avant-garde entering the music life at the end of 1950s and during 1960s one of the keynote goals was to break through domestic cultural and political isolation and to look for new inspirations in compositional-technical as well as in artistic and stylistic realms through the familiarization with foreign music. Among others, the contemporary development in Polish music also appeared to be attractive; however, the Union of Slovak Composers did not consider it as “appropriate”. In spite of that, during 1960s the impulses coming from Polish music and a greater openness of the Polish art became a firm component of the creative development of two Slovak composers – Tadeáš Salva in an early stage of his creativity and Roman Berger during his maturation and in the acme of his compositional and mental productivity.
    While studying at the Academy of Music in the Polish city of Katowice Salva found a favourable ambience for the development of his original expression and adoption of several avant-garde means bound especially to vocal declamation. The spiritual background of the Polish compositional school reflected in the origination of the pieces written by Salva during his studies and immediately after. We are speaking namely about the works which were inspired by Christian ideas, but which – despite their titles – at the same time overcame conventions of church music.
    For Roman Berger, born in Poland, Polish culture (literature, philosophy, music) has become a value from which he has benefited in his compositional work, starting with his mature graduation opus Transformations (1965) and returning to it now and then during his difficult life. The contact with this value shaped the crucial phase of his creativity marked by serious expression, ardent meditativeness and appealing tones, which then materialized in a number of mostly chamber vocal-instrumental and instrumental compositions. Besides composition Berger has presented himself as a writer of essays and musicological treatises, in which he refers to the issues of the artistic professionalism, as well as the duty of an artist to play the role of a critic of an uncultured situation in the society.

    PIRNÍKOVÁ, Tatiana: The Opinions and Attitudes of Oto Ferenczy as Reflected in the Development of Organizational Structure and Orientation of the Academy of Performing Arts in Bratislava
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 40, 2014, No. 2, pp. 113 – 133

    The contribution is focused on the presentation of opinions, attitudes and activities of the Slovak music composer and theoretician Oto Ferenczy (1921–2000) concerning the Academy of Performing Arts in Bratislava, where he worked for almost 40 years. He was present at the time of its origination and collaborated on its professional and social formation. As a teacher he focused on the issues of music theory, aesthetics, analyses, and tried to add to them a certain stamp of erudition. He participated in the institution’s activities as an academic official: as a vice-rector, dean, and rector.
    The author of the contribution is considering the period of 1950s and 1960s overlapping to 1970s – the period for which a fluctuating ideological pressure in cultural politics was typical, present also in artistic education. Besides Ferenczy’s opinions published in his essays from the pursued time, the study also discloses data from the school archive. Confronting them with generally known facts of the political and social life of the period, the author attempted to reconstruct the atmosphere of the educational milieu and to assess as realistically as possible the limits and assets of Ferenczy, the exponent of the community which was intelectually and artistically mature but politically manipulated, hence unfree and by turns collaborating with the regime. The rich glossary of the study often points to aspects and facts which will be analyzed in a prepared monograph on Oto Ferenczy in full details. The study presents a substantial part of one of its chapters

    KRUČAYOVÁ, Alena: Activities of Czech and Moravian Musicians in Slovakia in the 19th Century in the Context of the Development of Music School System and Education
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 40, 2014, No. 2, pp. 134 – 159

    Two facts in particular substantially influenced the character and content of music education on the territory of Slovakia in the 19th century: the reform of the educational system in Hungary (Ratio educationis, 1777), and democratization of the social life which brought with itself an unprecedented development of amateur cultivation of music. The interest of the masses in music education resulted in a development of music school system necessary for the education of future music teachers. Music classrooms were formed for that purpose (schola musicae) as part of a newly-established type of elementary schools, so called “normálka” (schola normalis, schola primaria nationalis). The origination of music classrooms from which municipal music schools gradually evolved (Bratislava, 1778; Košice, 1786), was the first step in the development of institutional music education in Slovakia. Besides those, music schools were founded by music associations in the 19th century (Bratislava, 1833; Trnava, 1834; Banská Bystrica, 1858; Prešov, 1859; Skalica, 1880), which were pragmatically focused on the schooling of singers and musicians-instrumentalists. Music education together with musical instrument practice was part of educational process also at teachers’ colleges, grammar schools and in convents. Moreover, in particular towns the music education was realized mostly on a private basis, and further opportunities for instrument playing and singing were offered by private music institutes (Bratislava, Košice, Trnava, Nitra, Prešov).
    The mentioned forms of private and institutional education were focused namely on amateur cultivation of music. The quality of this education was guaranteed by the personalities whose versatile activities conspicuously contributed to the development of music life in Slovak cities. Their degree of education and culture was stimulated also by the artistic activities of dozens of musicians from Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia (composers, organists, bandmasters, teachers). Some of them graduated from the Organ School in Prague (F. P. Hrdina, L. Dušinský, F. Janeček, J. Chládek, O. Hemerka), private music institutes (K. Hodytz) or Prague conservatory (B. Štětka, F. Bureš). The importance of their artistic activities for the advancement of music education and schooling on the territory of Slovakia in the 19th century has to be understood in both its formative and informative aspects. They participated in the shaping of music school system (music schools, private music institutes), music education at grammar schools and teachers’ colleges. As private teachers they participated in the education of the future Slovak professional performers and composers. Simultaneously they brought to Slovakia the know-how of the organization of music life, knowledge of music repertory, as well as music-pedagogical compendia improving the teaching practice.

    MARINČÁK, Šimon: Psalmody in Church Music with Special Attention to Byzantine Music
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 40, 2014, No. 2, pp. 160 – 170

    The issue of psalmody has not been substantially researched in the contemporary Slovak musicology yet. The issue is usually considered only from the musicological point of view and the liturgical aspect is either fully forgotten, or mentioned only marginally, which also poses a certain problem. Such an approach can result in subjective outcomes, even wrong conclusions. Hence in this study we made a short aside into the past, to the beginnings of psalmody, in order to point not only to a close relation of the psalmody to the Christian service, but also to various kinds of its performance. It is especially important to understand the difference between the kinds of psalmody and kinds of its performance.

    Materials

    MADARÁSZ, Veronika: New Information Regarding the Provenance and Period of Origin of Eleonora Susanna Lanyi Collection
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 40, 2014, No. 2, pp. 171 – 186

    Eleonora Susanna Lanyi Collection assembles period dances, songs, marches and bugle compositions designated for a keyboard instrument. This manuscript collection belonged to a music amateur and contained utility music of an average quality used in rural aristocratic surroundings in the 18th century. The source was found in 1951 and has not become the subject of a musicological monograph elaboration yet. It is deposited in the manuscript archive of the Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest (sign. K 106).
    The information on the title page – the name Eleonora Susanny Layni with the year 1729 – gave the name to the collection. There are no other references in it regarding the time of its origination or provenance of the source. A comparatively high portion of German, Polish and Slovak music material in the repertory of the collection positively points to the surroundings of Spiš and Šariš towns. Searching the files of parish registers of the Evangelical Church of Augsburg Confession parochial office in Kežmarok, deposited in the State Archive in Levoča, we found out that Eleonora Susanna Lanyi was born on March 5, 1753 in Kežmarok. Considering the long time span between the year 1729 and the year of birth of Eleonora Susanna Lanyi we can estimate that she could not have been the first owner of the collection. We assume that she inherited it; her name on the title page of the collection might have been written much later than the inscription of the year 1729. We suppose that the manuscript, by its origination and usage, was tied to the Lanyi family from Kežmarok which belonged to the representatives of the Upper-Hungarian Protestant middle nobility. The members of the divaricated lineage had been gradually settling on the territory of the present Slovakia, Bohemia, Austria and Hungary.
    The whole source is written down on one kind of paper. The watermark depicts a graceful couple – a gentleman and a lady – standing face to face, between them is a stylized flower with four petals. This watermark called Alamodo or Al a mode, was created by the master Cyriak Kleber, the owner of the paper mill and manufacture in Nuremberg in the years 1601–1616. The watermark was used from the 17th century to the first half of the 19th century. We did not succeed in determining the year of the production of the paper used for Eleonora Susanna Lanyi Collection yet. The accessible expert literature does not offer any information regarding the dating of exactly that watermark design which was preserved on the manuscript paper. Therefore we can only assume that the paper was produced prior to 1729 and bound in the book with decorative leather binding during the 17th or at the beginning of the 18th century.
    The results of graphological and musical-stylistic analysis of the collection repertory as well as new information gained regarding the personality of Eleonora Susanna Lanyi reveal that the collection is composed of two parts coming from different periods of the 18th century, or the source was created gradually. Reflecting on new findings, we can widen the time span of the origination of the collection and determine it approximately by the years from 1729 to 1760s.

    Music Pedagogy

    NEDĚLKA, Michal – PRIFTI, Egli: Reflection of National Musical Traditions in Albanian Compositions for Young Pianists
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 40, 2014, No. 2, pp. 187 – 197

    Albanian music has a rich tradition of folklore although this music is almost unknown in other European countries. The main reason is the years lasting isolation, from which the country is slowly extricating itself nowadays. On the other side, the characteristics of Albanian folk music are so powerful and important that they are reflected in non-folklore music composed for instruments never used in traditional music. This process reminds us of the music development in other European countries in the 19th century, in the era of so-called national schools, although contemporary Albanian music is composed in entirely contemporary styles. The typical examples of such compositions can be piano pieces. Piano is the instrument which was traditional and popular in European salons and households, and in Albania, it gained a more significant position only in the second half of the last century. Emerging piano compositions connect contemporary styles with national characteristics, which was previously typical for European composers in other countries.

    Review

    ZÁHORÁKOVÁ, Elena: Peter Oravec: Dejiny muzikálu II. Zlatý vek muzikálu: od Oklahomy! po Evitu
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 40, 2014, No. 2, pp. 198 – 200

    [The contribution is available only in Slovak language in the printed version of the revue.]