• 4/2009: Personalities – J. Haydn and M. Zmeškal

    4/2009: Personalities – J. Haydn and M. Zmeškal

    Preface

    ČIERNA, Alena: Preface
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 35, 2009, No. 4, pp. 327 – 328

    Studies

    KOWALSKÁ, Eva: Ancien régime or New Age? Characteristics and Paradoxes of the Turn of 19th century in the Habsburg Monarchy (Hungary)
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 35, 2009, No. 4, pp. 329 – 334

    The study is a brief characteristic of the turn of 19th century, when the processes of modernization began also in the Habsburg monarchy. The death of Joseph II (1790) – although being an important landmark – did not mean an easy entrance of opposition reinforcing conservative features of political system in the monarchy. The author points on one hand to the changed character of the Hungarian elite influenced by the ideas of Enlightenment to a great extent, and on the other hand to the fact, that radical adherents of “Josephinism” had not lost completely their positions in the society. An important role was played by the schooling system, which had been reformed and thus turned into a means influencing all levels of inhabitants.

    KAČIC, Ladislav: Franciscan “Haydniana” in Slovakia
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 35, 2009, No. 4, pp. 335 – 345

    The contribution supplements the existing research of Joseph Haydn’s relation to Slovakia (Milan Poštolka, Darina Múdra) and focuses on the reflection of Haydn’s work in the Franciscan environment. Two the most important Franciscan musicians from the second half of the 18th century contributed to this reflection most of all: P. Pantaleon Roškovský (1734–1789) and P. Gaudentius Dettelbach (1739–1818).

    In his extensive collections for keyboard instruments Cymbalum jubilationis and Musaeum Pantaleonianum Roškovský wrote down also Haydn’s music, namely an anonymous copy of Menuet and Trio from Divertimento Hob. XIV:4 and a precious copy of Piano Sonata E Flat Major Hob. XVI: E Flat 3, carrying the name of a different probable composer (Divertimento pour le Clavecin Cembalo Solo Del Sigre Mariano Romano Kayser), what resulted in a special round table at the Haydn Congress in Washington (1975) devoted to the problem of authorship. In 2005 F. Gratl found another source of this piece in the Franciscan monastery in Bolzano carrying the name of J. Haydn, thus confirming his authorship. According to a well-known information P. Gaudentius Dettelbach owned a piano arrangement of Haydn’s Symphony “La Caccia” Hob. I:73, according to the latest knowledge he even performed Haydn’s symphonies in the frame of a service – following then usual period practice. It is proven by a partially preserved copy of parts from the Symphony “Loudon” Hob. I:60. Moreover he rewrote and arranged several questionable Haydn’s masses (Hob. XXII:C 12 – written by Haydn’s younger brother Michael; Hob. XXII:B 13) for the needs of the Franciscans (simplificated scoring).

    However, the most interesting and precious is an original use of two Haydn’s themes “alla ongarese” in Dettelbach’s own composition Alma pastorella breve (1798). Joseph Haydn influenced crucially also the compositional style of both musicians, what is exemplified by several of their works, mostly masses. The approach to Haydn’s works by Franciscan musicians in the first half of the 19th century was less original, as in this period Franciscan choirs still more approximated to other choirs (parish ones etc.).

    MÚDRA, Darina: Joseph Haydn and Anton Zimmermann – a Contribution to the Issue of Similarity and Influence
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 35, 2009, No. 4, pp. 346 – 357

    Since the Classical period the Anton Zimmermann’s compositions (symphonies, quartet, masses) were erroneously taken for Joseph Haydn’s works. The reason may reside not only in the similarities of the musical feeling, mind and expression of both composers, but also in an “interchangeably” high level of their artistic mastery. This has not been expected in Anton Zimmerman’s works – unjustly, we must add – till recent times. Nevertheless, Zimmermann not only absorbed Haydn’s stimuli, he also “recast” and “promoted” them into a new grade. “Haydn’s logic” with “Mozart’s dynamics” and some original Zimmermann-like signs fused in a very fortunate way into Zimmermann’s musical expression.

    BLAHYNKA, Miloslav: Joseph Haydn and Jan Václav Tomášek
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 35, 2009, No. 4, pp. 358 – 362

    The author of the contribution focused on attitudes of Jan Václav Tomášek to Joseph Haydn, on the influence of Haydn’s work on the music of the Czech composer and on parallels between Haydn’s and Tomášek’s aesthetical opinions.

    Jan Václav Tomášek was a representative of Prague music life at the end of 18th and first half of 19th century. His style oscillated between music Classicism and Pre-romantism. Being a literary, philosophically and aesthetically educated musician, he consciously searched for and developed contacts with the most significant personalities of his era. He knew Goethe, Beethoven, Weber and others in person. Occasionally he observed also the Viennese music life and visiting the city he intensively strengthened both his social and professional contacts. While visiting Vienna and Matzen in 1808 the conductor and regenschori of the Cathedral of St. Stephan Joseph Preindl arranged for him a meeting with Joseph Haydn.

    Although in Haydn’s bibliography regarding the Tomášek’s relation to Haydn most often suggestive and witty words are quoted concerning Haydn’s appearance at the time of Tomášek’s visit to Vienna, Tomášek himself contemplated Haydn as a composer, confronted his own and Haydn’s creative poetics and appraised Haydn’s total output, also from the viewpoint of forms and genres. He responded to Haydn’s work – Tomášek’s songs and piano pieces reveal several inspirational impulses in melody, thematical work or in the structure of some compositions. Out of the three representatives of Vienna Classicism Tomášek appraised Mozart most of all. However, more parallels may be found between his and Haydn’s music than between his and Mozart’s music. In the most general view Tomášek’s relation to Haydn attests to the response of Czech composers from the turn of 19th century to the artistic phenomenon of the Vienna Classicism.

    Materials

    FREEMANOVÁ, Michaela: The Brothers Haydn and the Brothers Hospitallers – a Brief Summary of a Longstanding Research Project
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 35, 2009, No. 4, pp. 363 – 379

    In the late 18th and the 19th century, the brothers Joseph and Michael Haydn were among the most performed composers in the Bohemian Lands. Their sacred works were found not only in the music collections of cathedrals, important churches and monasteries, but also in the organ lofts of small towns and remote villages; their secular works, especially divertimenti, string quartets and symphonies, found their way not only into stately homes, but also into monasteries and even country vicarages. It is interesting that the greatest number of symphonies by both Haydns survived in Bohemia from the 18th century not in stately homes belonging to a noble family, but in collections belonging to religious Orders – among them the Brothers Hospitallers (Barmherzige Brüder), who, following their arrival in the Bohemian Lands in the early 17th century, set up eight monasteries there: in Prague (1620), Nové Město nad Metují (Neustadt an der Mettau, East Bohemia; 1696), Cieszyn (Těšín, Teschen, Silesia; 1700), Prostějov (Prossnitz, Moravia; 1733), Kuks (Kukus, East Bohemia; 1743), Brno (Brünn; 1747), Letovice (Lettowitz; Moravia, 1750), and Vizovice (Wisowitz, Moravia; 1781). In 1920, due to the Spa Conference Treaty, Cieszyn became Polish. The Order monastery founded in Feldsberg (in Czech Valčice, today Valtice), Lower Austria, in 1605, became part of South Moravia since the 1919 Saint Germain en Laye treaty.

    From the Letovice and Vizovice monasteries no collections have survived. No Haydn compositions are found in the Nové Město nad Metují and Prostějov collections. With the remaining monasteries it is different: both Haydns are prominent there, especially in the collection originating from Kuks. The Prague collection of the Brothers Hospitallers survived as a fragment consisting of twenty-two pieces of music – among them only one Haydn work, an arrangement of Michael Haydn’s Neue Deutsche Messe (Sherman 560). The two surviving catalogues of the Prague collection, from 1829, list two Masses by Joseph Haydn and two by Michael Haydn, two doubtful Masses (one of them probably by the Esterházy organist František Mikuláš Novotný), and several of their small scale sacred works. The fact that the number of the Haydn compositions belonging to the Prague monastery, is rather small might seem quite puzzling – especially because it was here, where for some time four alleged pupils of Joseph Haydn lived and worked: Abundius Micksh (1734–1782), Primitivus Niemecz (1750–1806), Blasius Smrczek (1746? –1813), and Flosculus Tomesch (1759–1801). Here too were two other men, born in Bohemia, who kept in touch with both Haydns from the time of their employment as musicians by the Viennese Brothers Hospitallers in the 1750s: Franciscus Fismann (1723–1774) and Benignus Roth (c. 1729–1807). In the last decades of the 18th century, the Prague music collection might have looked quite different from that of 1829, and have demonstrated a different level of interest in works by both Haydns (including the secular ones). There is, however, no earlier catalogue to prove this. More information about the relation of the Hospitallers to the Haydns is offered by the two surviving Moravian Order collections, from Brno, and, especially, Valtice. There is no 18th or 19th century catalogue of the Brno collection. Michael Haydn is represented in it by music, which might have been in the 1760s–1780s collected by Verecundus Faltus – the most important local 18th century Order choirmaster, surgeon, and from 1781–1782 Prior. By Joseph Haydn there are two Divertimenti and a handwritten copy of Die Jahreszeiten Hob. XXI: 3, from the 1830s. The Hospitallers’ Church obviously played a similar role in Brno, as the near-by Augustinian monastery – one of the town’s most important music centres: a feature characteristic for the Brothers Hospitallers in general – from the early decades of the 18th century music-making became part of their education curriculum. The real extent of the interest of the Hospitallers in the secular works of the Haydn brothers is documented by the Valtice collection – and, especially, by that of Kuks. The Valtice collection has been listed twice in the past: in the late 18th century (the catalogue consists of Fondamento incipits), and in 1865 (the compositions are listed by their names and the names of their authors; there are no incipits). First catalogue suggests how the musical life of the Prague or Brno Order might have looked around the time when, in Valtice (and Kuks), it was in full bloom. There were numerous compositions by Order members, and by composers close to the Order in Prague, Vienna and Eisenstadt, among them Joseph Haydn and Michael Haydn – Masses, litanies, offertories, arias, Salve Regina, Alma Redemptoris, Ave Regina, Regina Coeli, Te Deum, Stabat Mater and symphonies, some of them wrongly attributed. The state of the Valtice collection today roughly corresponds to the catalogue of 1865, listing three hundred and nine pieces of music. The losses to the original collection throughout the 19th century were therefore enormous: only twelve works by Joseph Haydn have survived to the present day, and nine by Michael Haydn. The only complete Brothers Hospitallers’ music collection is that from Kuks. It consists of nine hundred and fifteen pieces of music, most of them from the 18th century. By Michael Haydn, there are thirty-two sacred and secular works, among them his Hier liegt vor deiner Majestät Mass (Sherman 560), which enjoyed in the Bohemian Lands enormous popularity, and two Symphonies, one of them the only existing copy of Sinfonia in D, Sherman 24. By Joseph Haydn, there are eighty-one sacred and secular scores, among them thirty-nine symphonies, and a full set of parts of Die Jahreszeiten, Hob. XXI: 3, from 1838 (date of performance, commemorating one hundred years since the death of the founder of the monastery, Count Franz Anton Sporck). Large number of symphonies in the Kuks collection made some scholars to believe, that the collection consists of two groups: music put together for the use of the Brothers Hospitallers, and scores acquired by Count Johann Wenzel Sporck, who, in fact never owned Kuks. The person responsible for the contents of the collection was most probably Benignus Roth, who was the Prior of the Kuks monastery from 1766–1771 and from 1776–1806. From 1772–1775 he was the Prior of the Viennese convent, where, as well
    as in Kuks, he kept in touch with the most important musicians of his time, among them Joseph and Michael Haydn; due to his interest in their work one of the most interesting Bohemian (and Central European) Haydn collection originated in a small place in East Bohemia.

    SCHIRLBAUER-GROSSMANNOVÁ, Anna: Mikuláš Zmeškal: Legends and Reality
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 35, 2009, No. 4, pp. 380 – 396

    The emergence of many legends and myths joined with historical personalities is caused mainly by lack of information. With respect to Mikuláš (Nicolaus) Zmeškal the author initially analyses in her contribution particular factors, which may be overall designated as a “phenomenon of oblivion”. Zmeškal spent more than half a century in Vienna, where he kept in touch with Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven. Nevertheless, neither in the essential literature devoted to these three giants of Vienna Classicism nor in lexicons from 19th century a mention of him as a significant personality can be found. The explanation resides in a generational exchange, which influenced the frame of reference of biographical works on these three composers.

    The other important point of the contribution is a survey of actual legends and misrepresented information regarding Zmeškal, and their correction and confrontation with the proven facts, which in their significance surpass the fancy legends (e.g. facts regarding his music teachers, his study and education, the question whether he worked as a musician or a clerk). A special attention is paid to the legends of Orava context: his date and place of birth (November 19, 1759 in Leštiny na Orave), or the improbability of Beethoven’s visit to Zmeškal’s birthplace. A possibility of determination of Zmeškal’s natal house as well as the issue of his well-known portrait from Banská Bystrica are outlined here, too.

    Zmeškal as a music composer is another interesting subject. Unprecise and incomplete data concerning this activity led to an erroneous image in the past about Zmeškal having composed exclusively string quartets. On the basis of recently discovered documents in 2008 – namely his last will, revealing his extensive output – the author proposes an outline of four phases of his compositional development.

    The closing part of the study brings a list of Zmeškal’s output, segmented in usual form (orchestral works, concertos, chamber works, pieces for solo instruments and instructive pieces), however, with a hypothetical and temporary character. Therefore in the section chamber pieces concrete information on preserved compositions is given, while in other sections authentic piece of information is substituted by indefinite data.

    Study

    KOPČÁKOVÁ, Slávka: 150 Years of Music Education in Prešov The Elementary Art School of Mikuláš Moyzes in Prešov – from the Beginnings to the Present Days
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 35, 2009, No. 4, pp. 397 – 414

    The study is a survey summarizing the results of the previous research on the forms of music education in the city of Prešov and its surroundings considering their historical development. The results are not only presented but also critically evaluated. The author also points to the research areas that just wait for their systematic processing, evaluation, and in particular for the discovery of their historical sources in the future. Celebration of the 150th anniversary of music education in Prešov is an opportunity to realize again the necessity of historical research in this particular area. The music education brings on not only new social elements resulting from the socio-political changes, but also flourishing musical life, without which no comprehensive cultural background of any municipality, city or nation exists.

    Review

    STAROSTA, Miloslav: Martina Čiefová: Klavírne umenie v Bratislave v 19. storočí
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 35, 2009, No. 4, pp. 415 – 416

    [The contribution is available only in Slovak language in the printed version of the revue.]