• 1-2/2004: Music – Art – Thinking

    1-2/2004: Music – Art – Thinking

    Preface

    FÖLDEŠOVÁ, Marta: Preface
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, p. 3

    CHALUPKA, Ľubomír: Homage to Jozef Kresánek
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 5 – 8

    Studies

    BERGER, Roman: Hierarchy of the Levels of Consciousness, Intentionality and Competence
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 9 – 13

    Although the humanistic heritage of the musicological work of Jozef Kresánek urges us to the respect, nevertheless, the world of great Art is endangered at present. Vastness and domination of commercialization account for atrophy of the spiritual dimension of man and his sensual dullness when facing dramatically growing global crisis. As a result a recognizability of art as intentional consciousness has disappeared. By means of non-classical paradigm the consciousness may be understood as a system possessing hierarchical structure, in which the basis corresponds to Universal Unity and higher levels represent gradual reduction of intentionality and setting apart from the environment towards ego, determined by social and biological relations. In the process of artistic creation from composition through performance to participation the operational thinking – if it should be authentic – may be reconstructed on the basis of structure in accordance with the principle of intentionality and accomplishment of an ordered whole as part of the Universe. To realize such a hierarchical process requires a rehabilitation of categories of the spirit, transcendency, mystery, intuition, catharsis.

    BLAHYNKA, Miloslav: Genesis of Dynamism in Music Viewed by Jozef Kresánek
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 14 – 17

    The fact that musicological output of Jozef Kresánek was based on perception and revaluation of knowledge of traditional European aesthetics and philosophy enables to comprehend particular categories of musical thinking in their diversity. One of the frequent categories is the category of dynamism, which may be identified in various interpretational systems (from Lessing to Nietzsche). The heritage of Herbartian formal school fruitfully elaborated in Kresánek’s concept of musical thinking and concentrated primarily on perceived relations in totality of the artistic whole allows to understand specific attributes of dynamism of a musical artefact, to separate them from their expressional concepts and to see music and its dynamism not only in the relation of a structure and a recipient (phenomenological reduction), but also associated with the integration of an artefact into the dynamic evolutional context and particular social function (Mukařovský) and realization of the value-producing strata of a subject-object relation.

    FULKA, Vladimír: Kresánek’s Concept of Musical Thinking on the Background of the Musicology of 20th Century
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 18 – 26

    The article is studying scientific and philosophical background of Kresánek’s musicology, the core of which has become a theoretical concept of musical thinking. The background for this concept is formed by the Czech structuralism embodied in a figure of Jan Mukařovský, and the so-called music phenomenology. An origin of the term musical thinking used by Kresánek may be found in works of his Prague teachers – Otakar Zich and Josef Hutter. Structuralism in Kresánek is interwoven with his musical phenomenology – a concentration on a musical artefact as an immanent phenomenon, what is typical for scientific basis of Ernst Kurth and Hans Mersmann.

    CHALUPKA, Ľubomír: Polyhistoricity of a Term “Musical Thinking” Comprehended by Jozef Kresánek
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 27 – 39

    Part of Jozef Kresánek’s contribution in foundation and development of modern musicology in Slovakia is formed by continuous refining of explanation of specific characteristics of music as art through a complex term “musical thinking”. This term had to integrate – on meta- or supradisciplinary level – approaches to music, typical for particular disciplines of systematic musicology, cultivated in the 20th century. From youth studies to argumentative system of definition and validity of principles and norms of musical thinking summed up in a trilogy Foundations of Musical Thinking (1977), Tonality (1983) and Tectonics (1994) Kresánek revaluated knowledge of the Czech interwar aesthetics and German post-Riemann musicology and explained ontological attributes of music on the basis of connection of logical-theoretical postulates and preconditions of musical moulding with psychological-aesthetical, social and evolutional determinants. As a central pillar of his investigations he postulated an axioma: man creates music for man.

    ČERNÝ, Miroslav K.: Musicology as a System and its Systematics – a Concept by Jozef Kresánek Taking into Account
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 40 – 47

    A basic attribute of any science is a systematic organization of knowledge with respect to a character of its attitude towards the main subject. Speaking about musicology we may find a variability of relations between a musical artefact as a written down and sounding structure and miscellaneous conditions of its production, performance and perception. A manysidedness of accesses to music is not only a result of many aspects of its empirical recognition, but also of an intricacy of the term “music” itself. In connection with Kresánek’s proposal of a systematics of musicology (Bratislava 1980) the request of openness of the system is raised (musicology has to suppose an expansion of disciplinary spectrum as well as space for interdisciplinary relations), of reviewing Adler’s dichotomic model and elimination of Europe-centric view on music. The system of Oskár Elschek was oriented to this openness, presuming the same rate of theoretical (original systematic disciplines) and regional (European folk music, non-European geographical cultures) musicology. Kresánek’s systematics originating in Blume’s triad proposed the extension of a theoretical branch as an independent one. This view was justified by the ability of music theory to access a musical artefact most closely as a specific structure, by the fact, that music theory as the only one among the disciplines of the systematic branch does not have a “supporting” discipline, as well as by its ability to cross the border between historical and systematic musicology (a usefulness of both synchronic and diachronic recognition of a musical artefact). The submitted proposal of the author stresses the bipolarity of the system – on one hand there are the empirical-theoretical disciplines and on the other hand historiographical disciplines there.

    ŠIDLÍK, Peter: Epistemology and Music – Music Epistemology as a Subdiscipline of Systematic Musicology
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 48 – 52

    Epistemology is a discipline dealing with theory of knowledge in science as well as out of it. Together with methodology or logic and philosophy of science it falls into the domain of metasciences. For the usage of systematic musicology it may be singled out as an independent discipline interested in music which searches the answers on basic questions of music existence, by which it is getting closer to positions of philosophy, psychology or theory of music. Music epistemology is disposed not only to stand alongside these disciplines of the systematic musicology, but in the sense of recognizing aims to integrate partial recognizing forms, technics and methods of particular disciplines of theoretical and historical musicology. From this point of view we may formulate three structural levels of musicology – the first one, an ontic level, is formed by music as an object of recognition, the second one by aspects of examination and recognition of music, i. e. particular disciplines of musicology, systematic, historical and ethnomusicological ones. A metadiscipline – music epistemology is found on the third level, analysing and generalizing the processes of recognition of disciplines from the second level.

    URBANCOVÁ, Hana: Category of Musical Thinking in Kresánek’s Theory of Slovak Folk Song
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 53 – 63

    While examining relations of „high“ and „low“ art Kresánek displayed an interest to include folk music as an important ontic and socio-functional sphere into his continuously built system of explication of music as a creative product of man. Defending a specificity of folk music creativity Kresánek, unlike other historians, was inspired also by studies from the field of comparative musicology. In the time he wrote his monograph he had been only specifying a nascent category of musical thinking as an impulse to explication of music in its logically-structural, socio-psychological and evolutional relations. Inspired by his teacher J. Mukařovský he fruitfully leaned on structuralistic method, modified by its inclusion to social determinants. A special ambience of nascence and being of folk music formed a basis for consequent theoretical, i. e. structural-genetical and systematic viewpoint of Kresánek, when characterizing Slovak folk music in domestic regional or wider interethnical relations. A parameter of tonality as a substantial quality of folk music imagination and melodic thinking led him to classification of particular songs on a structural and evolutional basis. His sources were formed mostly by older collections of folk songs prevailingly possessing strophic tunes. He focused on Slovak vocal homophonic type. He did not use the whole range of song folklore in Slovakia. He complemented himself some of suggested explications (for example in his book Tonality), others were elaborated by his pupils and followers. Kresánek’s explication of folk musical thinking as a complex category remained as an exemplary one till today.

    MÚDRA, Darina: Kresánek’s View on History and His Pupils
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 64 – 69

    Methodological positions of Jozef Kresánek, a disciple of Prague musicological school, characteristic by a connection of structuralism with historical method were positively appraised not only in the time of their origin; they are valuable even today. In the field of music history they were applied and further developed by Kresánek’s pupils. Illustrated by synthetic interpretation of history of classical style in Slovakia methods of application of “Kresánek-like” view on process of reconstruction of historical development are demonstrated. According to Kresánek, the aim of the process had to be the most entire and complete model of the past events, particularly of history of music. Jozef Kresánek suggested to start with music and come back to inspirational sources and not in reverse order.

    VYSLOUŽIL, Jiří: Jozef Kresánek – Czech Musicology and Music (Relations, Similarities and Differences)
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 70 – 73

    An exceptionality of Kresánek’s position as a disciple of Czech interwar musicology and arts may be dealt with not only from the point of view of his individual scientifical growth and maturation, but also by selection of his attitudes to music. The Slovak scientist focused on music in its entirety and unity as a historically and ethnically differentiated product, which he studied as a display of specific musical thinking, forming the essence of music development. According to him it was necessary to single out folk music as an equal system enabling examination of validity of musical thinking in specific conditions. He differed from Czech researchers Otakar Zich or Vladimír Helfert by methods of its characterization and examination; he inclined more to Bartók. He appreciated a Leoš Janáček’s attitude to music folklore and accepted his creation, too, but he displayed a more reserved relation to a theory and creation by Alois Hába. Presumably he considered it too extraordinary in comparison with Schoenberg’s respectful relation to tradition. However, Hába did not claim his closeness neither to atonality nor to atematism; he considered his music being ordered in the sense of newly understood centrality.

    KAJANOVÁ, Yvetta: A Position of Non-artificial Genres in the System of Social Functions of Music by Jozef Kresánek
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 74 – 78

    In his study Social Function of Music (1961) Professor Jozef Kresánek embarked on an explanation of history of European music from the point of view of a function of refined entertainment. As he updated his observations also by views on contemporary music scene, he inevitably touched the field of pop music and jazz. Kresánek recognized their specific effect on music consciousness of youth and their share on a new moulding of musical thinking in the future. His reservations towards some manifestations of jazz, which he perceived as a common term for presentations of non-artistic music were marked by subjectivity, resulting partly from a tradition of European musicology (views of Th. W. Adorno), from undeveloped theory and history of the so-called non-artificial music as an independent discipline as well as from ideological reasons (a reserved attitude towards the impulses from the West-European countries and the USA). Therefore Kresánek only indicated many solutions of adequate sociological analyses of this music.

    ŠIŠKOVÁ, Ingeborg: Comments on Social Function of Music
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 79 – 82

    An existence of artistic music is conditioned by its social usefulness, by its ability to fulfil special functions in relation to life process of a society. These functions were changing depending on a development of a society or an individual, or on a level of music. As Jozef Kresánek showed in his study Social Function of Music a development of history of music may be comprehended through separation of actual functions, which dominantly influenced the character of music artefacts either universally or paticularly in some historical epochs. Music is perceived partly as a practical product of a creative subject and simultaneously as a part of spiritual culture. A relation between needs and ideas of productive individuals embodied in works on one hand and a level of their acceptation as an artefact by a society on the other hand indicates various tasks of music – from stabilizing to revolutionary ones. A comprehension of a music work by a society depends on aims of composers, on levels of mediators, fulfilling the role of music or verbal interpretation, and afterwards on taste and cultural needs of a society, in which music communicates. This understanding – as Adorno showed – depends on harmony between a creative attitude of a composer and a style tendency of a society.

    MARTINÁKOVÁ, Zuzana: A Term Tonality in the Context of Jozef Kresánek’s Explication
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 83 – 86

    The aim of the article is to refer to progressiveness of specification of a principle of tonality in music chosen by Professor Jozef Kresánek in his monograph Tonality (1983) and to add several comments. From the point of view of synergetic knowledge it is appropriate to comprehend tonality, understood in relations of centralization and oscillation, like a relation of competing forces. Therefore the opposite of centralization is decentralization. As a potential centre may be represented by a tone, a chord or a space, these elements may determinate a process of decentralization, too. Thus investigation of tonality needn’t to be bound to chronology of broadening the music vocabulary or to development of  musical thinking derived from style succession in European artistic composed music. Kresánek’s concept of tonality inspires to theoretical precision of modal system in music, too.

    POKOJNÁ, Katarína: Jozef Kresánek on Dodecaphony from the Point of View of Tectonics
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 87 – 90

    The contribution outlines Kresánek’s reflection of one period in continual development of musical thinking. Kresánek expounds dodecaphony not only as a particular evolutional phase of a course leading to a destruction of thematic thinking, but as a kind of music which established equalization of all twelve tones of a tempered chromatic scale. In a preface to his book Tectonics (1994) he claims, that studies from the field of tectonics mostly focus either on specific traits of a movement or a style, or on tectonic thinking of one separated orientation with no regard to the general trend. According to him the reason dwells in individualistically based endeavours of the 20th century creation, when peculiarities of a particular compositional orientation or of a creation of particular authors came to the fore. On the contrary the Kresánek’s basic effort was to find out – on the grounds of dialectics – not only peculiarities, but also universalities in the musical thinking research. With Kresánek, a stress on general tendencies and principles of evolution of musical thinking predominates, what influenced his explication of dodecaphony in Tectonics, too.

     

    MATEJ, Daniel: „Musica anemica“ – (Kresánek versus Cage)
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 91 – 94

    In the moment we realize that Slovak musicologist Jozef Kresánek (born 1913) and American composer John Cage (born 1912) were contemporaries, distinct ways of their philosophical and theoretical explication of music appear as striking. Kresánek as a disciple of traditional musicology of 20th century rooting in Riemann heritage came out of admiration of traditions and development of European artistic music. In the sense of his concept of musical thinking he formulated principles of tonality and tectonics, generated by a coordination of thematic, dynamic and sonoric spheres. Delineating postulates of “healthy”, “animated” music this “prima prattica” is closely related to evolutional dynamics approximately till 1900, bound to anthropocentrism of a Renaissance epoch. Cage’s concept of music, as if modern “seconda prattica” does not grow out of evolutional genesis, but it aims to reflect the presence and to postulate theses of transformations of music also for the future through accentuation of the nessessity of broadening the sound universe of music, reducing the music attributes purely down to the level of a time structure, depriving of psychologization and historical determinism. By this way the music organism determined by principles and norms of traditional musical thinking is “drained of blood” and this new situation enables to grasp all manipulations with sound as legitimate components of other concept of a music evolution.

    DYKAST, Roman: How Humanists Thought about Music
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 95 – 108

    Music got into the system of humanistic sciences in the 15th century in connection with neoplatonistic spiritualism. Its specific efficiency results from its similarity of material medium (air) and human spirit and from its ability to express an idea of love in harmonic terms. A theory on correspondence between intervals and a disposition of a human soul (harmony of musica humana and musica mundana) is reinforced and a classical ideal of unity of music and poetry is innovated. An adequate usage of keys is searched for. The period theorists may be differentiated from the point of view of their relation to original theoretical explanations – Zarlino was a sceptic, Vicentino hoped for a renewal of a tetrachordal system. Vicentino’s application of an ancient theory on period praxis (chromatic madrigal) spread also among French humanists.

    PEČMAN, Rudolf: A Term „Musical Thinking“ Considered by Otakar Zich and Vladimír Helfert
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 109 – 113

    A term “musical thinking” is not determined precisely in musicological literature. The reason dwells in ambiguousness of the term “thinking” in general psychology. Comprehended as a “thinking by music” or “thinking in music” we may link it with current analytical-synthetical phases of production or awareness of structural organization of music. The first Czech musicologists who used it in this sense were Otakar Zich and Vladimír Helfert. The first one came out of psychological suppositions of perception of music on the basis of emotional experience, and he analyzed its structure. He defined two kinds of the term – the first one is purely musical one, concentrating on music itself, and the second one is poetically-musical, associating various non-musical ideas. Inspired by the theory of Volkelt’s meaningful representations Zich divided meaningful associations into objective, material and technical ones. Only the last of them are connected with the system of music-theoretical notions. Helfert, oriented historiografically, applied the term “musical thinking” to problems of evolutional transformation of the structure of a musical artefact. For him it is a more general term than musical imagination and it is bound to a logic of musical structure as a demonstration of individual creativity. Neither Zich nor Helfert precised their notions of “musical thinking” by a definition.

    SPURNÝ, Lubomír: Between Order And Chaos: On the Rationale Behind Haba’s Musical Thought
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 114 – 119

    Comparing selected statements of Arnold Schoenberg and Alois Hába, I treat the issue of artistic production. The phrase itself, Musik der Freiheit, which is typically used in connection with Hába’s oeuvre or Schoenberg’s early atonal works, already suggests to the disinterested reader certain taxonomy. Works thus composed are usually associated with a creative model, which is quite dependent on the free will of the composer; in the worst case, this represents an accidental or chaotic process, where the origin of a composition is not determined by a set of given criteria and parts are freely associated with each other. In contrast to Schoenberg, Hába attempts to contravene this convention with his commentary on the primary theoretical reflections that precede a composer’s works. With regard for the creative process, I try to defend the concept of two distinct models: Hába’s formula develops from his sound imagination (Klangvorstellung) and theoretical bases (theoretisches Grundlagen) to his own creation (Schaffen); Schoenberg approaches composition from the initial subconscious creation (unbewusstes Schaffen) to theoretical reflection (theoretische Reflexion). Both of these models, at first blush so different from each other, are nevertheless connected by a common theme: both composers emphasize the notion of free creation.

    ŽABKA, Marek: Peter Faltin – Autonomization of Musicality
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 120 – 166

    The specific feature of the musicological work of Peter Faltin is his concept of the autonomous musical meaning. The semiotics of the non-semantic sign marks his theoretical thinking. The leitmotiv of Faltin’s texts is his strict thesis of self-contained musical meaning that rarely finds a direct correlation with entities in the extramusical space.

    The article follows up the development of Faltin‘s thinking leading to an overthrow of “the fetish of the denotat”. The first chapter focuses on an important work coming from the period before his emigration in the late 60’s: Funkcia zvuku v hudobnej štruktúre (Function of the Sound in the Music Structure). Although it shows some signs of juvenility, it contains several worthful ideas. The book is basically a defense of the contemporary avant-garde music. The notion of the autonomous musical sound plays the key role in Faltin’s reasoning. The next chapter is dedicated to Faltin’s empirical approach to the music phenomenon. It is mainly based on his most comprehensive book Phänomenologie der musikalischen Form (Phenomenology of the Musical Form). We investigate how Faltin used a sophisticated music-psychological experiment to prove his concept of autonomous musical syntax. Finally, the last chapter explores Faltin’s semiotics of music. A synthesis of his semiotic thoughts can be found in the book Bedeutung ästhetischer Zeichen: Musik und Sprache (Meaning of Aesthestic Signs: Music and Language). However, the authenticity of the edition is arguable, and therefore it is necessary to read also Faltin‘s previous articles. He uses the (empirically proved) autonomous musical syntax as an argument for the notion of autonomous musical sign. Faltin defeats the fetish of the denotat and constitutes the concept of the self-contained musical meaning. Faltin’s bibliography was added as an attachment to the article. The reason is that no bibliography of Faltin’s work has been published before.

    KREKOVIČ, Slavomír: Musical Thinking Today – Points of Departure of Conceptual Approaches
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 167 – 173

    During the latest decades of the past century also the realm of music creation envisaged the evolution of basis of conceptual innovation in the frame of application of the so-called postmodern ideas. The fundamental trait was a relativization of such traditional categories of artistic creation as style, genre, individual work. New impulses came to the fore having their roots outside the field of new music or vanguard of 1950s and 1960s, e.g. improvised jazz, some sonic concepts from the realm of rock music and subsequent activities in the field of pop music. These motives gave the birth to meta- and postgenre projects, they helped to wipe off the boundaries of identifiableness of opus production for the sake of stressing the crisis of traditional composition and axiological system. Many ideas from fine arts came to the realm of music. In fine arts the concepts were already applied, in which the ideas, processes of thought of creative subjects, manifestations of protest were more important than particular artefacts. It is not only variegated manipulation with sound, but also a pronouncement of social attitudes of the creators towards the epoch and its problems, with which a domain of such an inspired musical thinking of the present is concerned.

    ŠTRAUS, Tomáš: Epistemology: Intentional Explication of Artistic Thinking (Actualization of Themes Touched Fourty Years Ago)
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 174 – 179

    An accent on creative process, being it art or thinking, was formulated more than 40 years ago. In the time of its origin it possessed extremly polemic and antidogmatic character. Art was often innovatively understood as a special and fully valuable knowledge. Basic impulses of a wider methodological synthesis relevant even today were stated already in this rudimentary access to creative process. In modernism new and characteristic reality (A) suggests unique traits of individual author’s personality (B) and subsequently similar style elements of a resulting form of a work (C), too. Social reception and appreciation of a work (D) further enrich this process in new contentual aspects. Our working hypotheses formerly intuitively stated in Prague and Bratislava (or in Moscow or elsewhere) are today, in the postmodern time, confirmed and systematized in their substantial characteristics. An accent is presently shifted from history of arts and cognitive psychology to general philosophical examination of a field. Once working hypotheses were recreated to new initial paradigms of a relation between art and science, thinking and cognition.

    BREJKA, Rudolf: Verbal and Non-verbal Aspects of Musical Thinking in the Process of Music Perception
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 180 – 185

    A category of musical thinking is inseparably connected with recipients’ attitudes towards sounding music. From this non-verbalism, nonuniversality and various contexts (historical as well as genre limits) as well as openness of these attitudes follow. The music perception may be realized on a level of an aesthetic experience (non-verbal thinking) or of a reflective relation (where non-verbalism of music is transformed into a level of verbal musical thinking). The first level is paramount when a percipient identifies himself with the music artefact. This level is activated in the course of understanding of the meaning of music. The mature listeners able to verbally interpret the semantic qualities of music using the notions of music theory or aesthetics represent the second level, on which the first level is not eliminated, and which does not exhaust music as a concise complex system addressing man. Thus versatility – multi-spectral character – of musical thinking is confirmed, which considers diverse listeners’ dispositions on the basis of unity of form and content as a precondition of emotional effect and production of musical meaning.

    PIAČEK, Jozef: Musical Form of Transcendency from the Point of View of Syncriticism
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 186 – 194

    The aim of the contribution is to provide the scholars-musicologists as well as the wider music public with a kind of self-identifying means of reinforcement (or a better support) of a position or viewpoint from which they approach music. The author would like to present a different concept of notions and of the general musicological approach from that one which the reader of these lines has been developing hitherto. The elaboration of such a self-identifying means of the scholar working in any realm of music research, and of a person participating in  any branch of music (composer, performer, recipient) is based on the presupposition of the existence of two basic mutually intertwining lines in the evolution of the Western (European) civilization – the line of agapism and line of polemics.

    HALUŠKA, Ján: From Nature to Tone Systems
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 195 – 204

    A study and understanding of a tone system enable us to discern not only processes of separation of music from the sound universe but also methods of its organization. These processes are bound to the aspects of optimal selection and structural principles; meanwhile a return to elementary bases of music material, a respect to norms as a precondition for harmony and freedom, and elucidation of a meaning of hierarchy of values are demonstrated. Tone system may be theoretically described by the use of mathematical definitions. Considering its character and origin, it may also be an impulse to interdisciplinary views on music as a specific model integrating natural laws, artistic creativity and social relations. Looking for a position of the tone system in the supposed transitions from a movement to an idea or vice versa, we may say it is somewhere in the middle. Its comprehension is realized in a sufficient distance from extremes of purely quantitative definition or only qualitative factors.

    KVASZ, Ladislav: Space in Painting and Geometry
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 205 – 213

    A specific trait of fine arts is animation of space delineated in painting by two-dimensional object represented in such a way, that elementary geometrical characteristics are broken in favour of aesthetic effect. Exemplified by several works of art (by Leonardo da Vinci, El Greco, Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne) in connection with stylistic changes and individual style manifestations of the artists a speciality of vision of geometrical proportions is analyzed, with respect to their deliberate distortion, shifts and stressing of hidden or secondary geometrical characteristics, aiming to evocation of new relations in the recipient’s mind. In the realm of fine arts breaking the geometrical rules of the actual model is postulated as an essential attribute of creativity and uniqueness.

    Reviews

    CHALUPKA, Ľubomír: Rudolf Pečman: Vladimír Helfert
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 214 – 217

    [The contribution is available only in Slovak language in the printed version of the revue.]

    HATRÍK, Juraj: Igor Stravinskij: Hudobná poetika – Kronika môjho života
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 30, 2004, No. 1 – 2, pp. 217 – 219

    [The contribution is available only in Slovak language in the printed version of the revue.]