• 2/2007: Music: History – Pedagogy – Ethnomusicology

    2/2007: Music: History – Pedagogy – Ethnomusicology


    FÖLDEŠOVÁ, Marta: Preface
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 33, 2007, No. 2, pp. 159 – 160


    KRÁK, Egon: Contrapunctus – Consequences of The Term
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 33, 2007, No. 2, pp. 161 – 166

    In the course of time the term contrapunctus has been acquiring still more complex meaning; it has not been changing its meaning but acquiring more and more meanings. Originally it was just a tendency for solving performing and textural problems arising from liturgical choral practice as well as metamorphosed non-liturgical heterophony. Later it has acquired a character of ever more copious set of normative principles. A demanding task of our presence is to determine all their attributes on a correct and authentic theoretical basis.

    This tendency of counterpoint led continually to universal perception of successive consonant interval logic of two-part vocal music, hence to origin of completely new processual and tectonic value of music. The designation counterpoint thus points to a theory of optimal consonant successiveness of paralelly led melodies with deepening of inner hierarchical system differentiating values of particular intervals. This differentiation began to be percepted in process and this is the most essential precedent.

    The fundamental component of the ‘gestio sapientis’ – as we have called it – of this catalysis is a set of regulae, e.g. rules – a normative system leading to universal comprehension of chordal logic through intervals. The experts consider it the most important factor, nevertheless, some other exist, too. Due to them the factors of inconsistency of counterpoint are more complex and thus more authentic, textured, and more valuable. It is the only feasible model of thinking, not leading to a simplification of the contents of contrapunctus notion, from which components of harmonic thinking have evolved.

    Mandata became the other important component of counterpoint. These are the recommendations formulated by authorities leading to wider accepted and generalized principles of the continually developing music texture. This was the origin of a theory of texture and theory of composition, demolishing the boundaries of performing practice, up till then a self-contained and unique one.

    Licences were the third phenomenon of the so-called ‘gestio sapientis’; licences as a set of verified and well-sounding devices tending to a formulation of ‘intentio contrapuncti’ – to the aim of contrapuntal compositional work on the basis of diversity principle. The ‘gestio sapientis’ has finally become a theoretically definable compositional principle. It occurred in the 13th–16th centuries in European music. Contrapunctus of this period has evolved continually into a self-contained and enclosed doctrine, a system working on the basis of rules, recommendations and precisely determined intentio contrapuncti. This system was respected as well as elaborated by generations of musicians and theoreticians, majority of them composers.

    KRÁK, Egon: Guillaume de Machaut and Compositional Models in 14th Century Music in France
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 33, 2007, No. 2, pp. 167 – 195

    Guillaume de Machaut and his contemporaries lived and worked in a politically and confessionally turbulent era, aesthetically manifold and rich in opinions. On one hand a church music doctrine of Ars antiqua epoch had been dying away, on the other hand gorgeous displays of trouvere and troubadour vocal tradition occurred. From the church music experience a new music conception arose, full of new forms, of melodical, harmonical and rhythmical boldness. By insertion of bold melismas into the motet structure Pierre de la Croix had been evolving new shapes of discant polyphony in the cathedral of the city of Amiens, documented by the polyphonic compositions from the MONTPELLIER manuscript. In Paris Philippe de Vitry was occupied by a reform of mensural theory, which virtually began by a definition of isorhythmical principle. We can find innovations of this era excellently summarized in the Jean de Murs’ treatises, which represent in themselves the period level of thinking in music theory and practice, uniquely mutually concordant. BERKELEY MANUSCRIPT, Ms.744 or TRACTATUS FIGURARUM from 1336 are other irreplaceable sources necessary for comprehension of compositional thinking and performing practice. A reflection of these monuments with a commentary and a brief summary of Machaut’s work perception is published for the first time in Slovakia.

    GRÉNER, Ján: Vingt-quatre Violons du Roi
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 33, 2007, No. 2, pp. 196 – 211

    Vingt-quatre violons du Roi (twenty-four king’s violins) was a part of Musique de la Chambre du roi, called also Grande Bande; it was a string orchestra active at the French royal court since the beginning of the 17th century till the year 1761.

    This ensemble consisted of five voices: dessus, haute contre, taille, quinte and basse, which covered more than four octaves and corresponded with the division of vocal parts. Dessus was played by violins, haute contre, taille and quinte – three middle voices (les parties du milieu), or les parties du remplissage – were entrusted to violas of various sizes and basse was realized by an instrument basse de violon, which is a kind of a little bit larger cello, tuned one whole tone lower. The fact, that a 16 feet bass instrument is missing is a typical feature of the French early Baroque.

    The ensemble was led by many significant artists beginning with L. Constantine, M. Légere, V. Bruslardo, through G. Dumanoir and J. B. Lully to J.-F. Rebel.

    The ensemble performed frequently with other royal bodies and participated in court ballets, concerts, celebrations, opera performances or sacral productions.

    The repertory of the first generation of the Vingt-quatre violons is reflected in Praetorius’ collection Terpsichore from 1612, containing 312 French dances. Manuscript antologies like Collection Philidor, Manuscrit d’Uppsala and Cassel Manuscrit preserved music played by following generations of royal violinists. Several compositions can be found in Mersenn’s Harmonie universelle and Ballard’s antology from 1665, too.

    Sonority of a full five-part music of this orchestra fascinated not only Baroque composers in France and other European countries; we can perceive its influence also in later historical periods. On the basis of my own experience I may confirm, that it fascinates performers of “early music” till now.

    SCHIRLBAUER-GROSSMANNOVÁ, Anna: Mikuláš Zmeškal and Years of his Secondary Studies (1759 – 1833)
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 33, 2007, No. 2, pp. 212 – 244

    In her study the author presents some significant information complementing one chapter in Mikuláš Zmeškal’s life, filling thus a blank in his biography. Her presentation of particular results of a concentrated research is joined with an analysis of more general living conditions of the period on one hand, on the other hand it is balanced by a synthetic view on Zmeškal’s stay in Pressburg (today Bratislava, a capital of Slovakia).

    Contrary to existing claims and assumptions the author proves, that Zmeškal studied at the Pressburg’s grammar school. This city – being a capital of the whole Hungary in the period – formed a basis, from which Zmeškal’s Viennese career developed later (he was a high court official, a musician, a friend of the man of genius L. v. Beethoven and other significant personalities, etc.). Various aspects of his four-year stay (1774–1778) are discussed in detail. As Zmeškal was an attendant of Evangelical Grammar School (later called lyceum), his life was closely related to life of evangelical congregation. Nevertheless, for him as the future musician manifold music life in the town and its conditions were important, as well as the current quality of the grammar school, teaching plan or sphere of social contacts.

    An important question occurs, who was Zmeškal’s music teacher in the time, when his first compositions – preserved till today – originated. On the basis of several traces the author formulates a hypothesis of a composer and conductor Anton Zimmermann being the teacher.

    The study contains a huge amount of new facts more or less related to the main subject, among others the details concerning the building of an evangelical church and rebuilding of the organ taking place in the time, data about the third brother of Mikuláš Zmeškal, unknow until now, authentic reports on students’ life at the abovementioned evangelical institute, biographical data of several significant personalities etc. The supplement contains a complete text of Zimmermann’s cantata Ziehet ein (lyrics by Ján Juraj Strečko), unpublished so far.

    MEDŇANSKÁ, Irena: Wolfgang Roscher’s Polyaesthetic Education and its Adaptations in Music-teaching Practice in Slovakia
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 33, 2007, No. 2, pp. 245 – 255

    Polyaesthetic education and integrative music teaching concept is based on knowledge from all music and music-theoretical professions and other artistic and teaching spheres. The centre of thought and organization was the Institut für Integrative Musikpädagogik und Polyästhetische Erziehung (Institute for Integrative Music Teaching and Polyaesthetic Education) at the University Mozarteum in Salzburg. The father of the concept is a music composer and musicologist Wolfgang Roscher (1927 – 2002). The title “polyaesthetic education” origins in Aristoteles’ notions on activation of all human senses – polyaisthesis, and creative production – poiesis, which is active human reproduction of the world – mimesis. The activation of those senses, which mediate experience and experiences from creative activity: sense for space, time, society and sense for science and art is of equal importance in polyaesthetic education. In science literature these five senses are comprehended as a programme or as a basic theoretical concept of polyaesthetic education. On the basis of this concept W. Rosher formulated 6 pedagogical spheres of polyaesthetic education: 1) Production: improvisation and composition. 2) Reproduction: realization and performing. 3) Demonstration: interaction and communication. 4) Reflection: analysis of the world around and functional analysis. 5) Consumption: analysis of the needs and consumption. 6) Perception: material and structural analysis.

    In Slovakia the principles and rules of polyaesthetic education have been applied namely by a music composer and teacher Juraj Hatrík. Similarly to W. Roscher he prefers the unity of music, dance, movement, dramatic action, and visual arts in this educational system. From the point of view of the author Hatrík discerns two basic kinds of projects: closed, e.g. promising, or open, e.g. unpromising. The promising projects tend to a clear goal, while by unpromising projects the goal is the way. Project activity demands a creative teacher, able to motivate and support creativity of his pupils aiming at experience and emotion.

    KRUŠINSKÁ, Martina – GAJDOŠÍKOVÁ-ZELEIOVÁ, Jaroslava: Changes in the Slovak Music Education at the End of the 20th Century
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 33, 2007, No. 2, pp. 256 – 266

    After the year 1989 the system of music education in Slovakia went through changes in both the contents and form, aiming at its harmonization with European trends, however, they have been neither fully accepted nor realized in practice. According to present educational legislation the educational system offers elementary music education at primary schools; the specialized music education can be acquired at basic art schools, conservatories and secondary training colleges. Due to tendencies of a unification of European educational system the Slovak music educational system is being approximated to the demands of the Charter on Music Education in Primary Schools in Europe, guaranteeing the right of all children and youth for music education while preserving the regional and national musical and cultural traditions. In Slovakia basic art schools possess a unique role in this system, and they should be preserved in the system of primary and secondary schools also according to the new school act from 2007.

    LUKÁČOVÁ, Alžbeta: Samko Dudík’s Band and Performing Practice of Non-dance Repertory
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 33, 2007, No. 2, pp. 267 – 293

    The main task of each folk band in rural and smalltown ambience was performing the dance repertory. Bands were playing mostly at wedding celebrations, parties and other dancing events. The function of “music for listening” or of “background music” was practically unknown. Generally such function was more favoured in town coffehouses, casinos and townsmen society. At Myjava hillsides musicians were part of homogeneous singing and dance tradition. This tradition was created by similar repertory of particular bands, by musicians who worked in several bands, by their fluctuation in the region limits, etc. Concerning the non-dance repertory musicians focused primarilly on knowledge of rubato songs joined with singing, as well as on very interesting marches – marching melodies possessing markedly instrumental character. Occasionally musicians included also some concert pieces into their repertory, probably due to knowledge of musical notation of some of the band’s members, or due to rivalry of the bands, trying to be the most successful at the public.

    Samko Dudík’s Myjava band is a unique example of an ensemble, which succeeded to establish itself at many platforms: among simple people from Myjava region, among town officials – Hungarian, Czech and Slovak alike, as well as at wineshops and coffeehouses, at ethnographical meetings or in the sphere of organized folklore. Undoubtedly it was a unique personality of Samko Dudík who could claim credit for it. He was the first violinist, folk songs collector, ethnographic enthusiast, the band leader. The scope of his activities was extremely wide and developed. The variegated performing opportunities reveal, that as the first violinist and leader Dudík adapted the performed repertory appropriately reflecting the demands or conditions of the particular event.

    Regarding the themes, origin, genre and function the repertory may be divided into following groups: traditional regional repertory, Slovak repertory, Slavonic repertory, repertory of neighbouring nations (Hungarian and Moravian songs), nationally-emancipating songs and anthems, spiritual songs, artificial songs, period hits and repertory of classical music.

    It is difficult to delineate dance or non-dance events, as both dance and non-dance music repertories, as well as performing occasions joined with them are organically interconnected. In the case of Samko Dudík’s band the question is still more complicated, as the scope of activities of this body markedly overgrew the activities of other preceding and following bands in the Myjava region. During its existence the Dudík’s band travelled the whole Austria-Hungary and the first Czechoslovak Republic, with performances from “traditional” ones, closely joined with the ambience from which the band had arisen, to professional performing at various town occasions.

    The repertory of folk bands and the research of their performing practice in the first half of the 20th century is a very attractive subject from many points of view, bringing with itself several challenging questions. The Samko Dudík’s band represents such an ensemble, which comes from amateur basis and wins its way to the professional one, succeeding also in other than domestic ambience. The image of its non-dance repertory is unique and has no pendant in repertory of any other of documented bands of the period. Certainly the future research will bring many challenging themes for ethnomusicology in Middle-European context.


    ADAMKOVIČOVÁ, Zuzana: Music – for Children, about Children, with Children. Interview with Juraj Hatrík and Belo Felix on Questions of Music Education, Development of Children’s Music Creativity and Music for Children
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 33, 2007, No. 2, pp. 294 – 299


    PUŠKÁŠOVÁ, Melánia: Remembrances on Festival KONVERGENCIE 2007
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 33, 2007, No. 2, pp. 300 – 304

    DOHNALOVÁ, Lýdia: Festival Fragments
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 33, 2007, No. 2, pp. 305 – 307


    ŠARGOVÁ, Jana: Hana Urbancová: Mariánske legendy v ľudovom speve. Príspevok k typológii variačného procesu
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 33, 2007, No. 2, pp. 308 – 309

    [The contribution is available only in Slovak language in the printed version of the revue.]

    CSERES, Jozef: We All Are Patients! Martin Burlas: Coma
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 33, 2007, No. 2, pp. 309 – 311

    [The contribution is available only in Slovak language in the printed version of the revue.]