• 4/2013: Trends of Musicology

    4/2013: Trends of Musicology


    ČIERNA, Alena: Preface
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 39, 2013, No. 4, pp. 313


    ZVARA, Vladimír: Musicology in Central Europe
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 39, 2013, No. 4, pp. 314 – 316


    FERENCZI, Ilona: ‘Who will roll away the stone for us?’ – Problems Regarding the Slovak-Hungarian Collaboration in Music Research
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 39, 2013, No. 4, pp. 317 – 322

    In the frame of my lecture on the occasion of the 75th birthday celebration of Hungarian musicologist Dénes Bartha in 1983 I presented the board of the binding of the Vietoris Book of Tablature and its part enabling to compare 89 fragments or complete compositions of the primary version with their definitive shape, as great majority of these pieces are also found in the final version of the tablature. The church songs in Slovak and Latin from the first specimen were arranged from the aspect of content, order or music, and written anew. In the material of the binding a fragment of other kind occurs: basso continuo of some works from the 17th century, among them six-voice composition Wer wälzet uns den Stein von des Grabes Tür (Who will roll away the stone from the tomb for us) by Andreas Hammerschmidt in Slovak translation (Kdo odwalj kamen …). This fact further strengthens the hypothesis that Vietoris Book of Tablature belonged to an organist from a place inhabited mostly by Slovaks. Tracing the discovery and on the basis of fragmentary source we deal with problems of nationality in music history of Hungary and modify our historical viewpoint as the correct historical evaluation is always problematic – in Hungary as well as outside its borders.

    Marta Ottlová: Richard Wagner and his Traces in Czech Music and Musicology
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 39, 2013, No. 4, pp. 323 – 330

    In the second half of the 19thcentury the influence of Richad Wagner as a music dramatist, as well as a writer and author of theoretical concept of music drama was felt very strongly. To a great extent the search for the ideal of Czech national opera was equal to its demarcation against the foreign influences, hence also against the ‘Wagnerism’, although the ideas about what is ‘Wagnerian’ were mostly only unclearly defined in the period press, and sometimes they did not take reality into account. The turn was made by Otakar Hostinský who considered Wagner the representative of the progress in art, worthy to be followed also in the Czech environment. His Wagnerian interpretation of Smetana had entrenched itself in Czech musicology so firmly, that the arguments of Wagner’s opponents, such as František Pivoda, remained unnoticed until the 1980s. Only when we cease to consider the given issue through the prism of the progress in art, we may free the explication of the development of Czech music and opera of the 19thcentury of speculativeness and normativeness.

    GABRIELOVÁ, Jarmila: ‘Canon’ in Czech Music Historiography and Practice: Its Origin, Function, and Changes in the Course of Time
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 39, 2013, No. 4, pp. 331 – 339

    The article describes 1) historical preconditions and contexts of the origin of Czech ‘canon’ of great authors and works during the 19th century, 2) the growth of Czech national music culture from 1860 on, the establishment of its ‘canon’ in the late 19th century and the role of this canon in music historiography and music life of following decades, and 3) gradual changes of the canon since the end of 19 th century until recent times.

    VIKÁRIUS, László: Béla Bartók as a Music Theoretician
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 39, 2013, No. 4, pp. 340 – 353

    Béla Bartók, known as a taciturn composer, left a suprisingly high number of theoretical treatises. Although many of them were written as prefaces, commentaries and notes to his extensive collection of folk songs, the essays on folk and art music and music life are of such a remarkable size that the latest publication of his studies Bartók Béla Írásai (Béla Bartók’s Writings) omitting the collections of Romanian, Slovak, Yugoslavian and Turkish songs and instrumental music filled up eight volumes. In various essays Bartók tried to speculate on musical aspects of the folk music collected by him, as well as on contemporary art music. He surveyed used scales and their tones, rhythms and metres, as well as structure, form, harmony and expression. Apart from his late little-discussed theoretic exegesis on a transcription of sounding music in the preface to the first volume of Serbo-Croatian Folk Music (Bartók and Albert B. Lord, 1951) the important examples of modern harmony are presented, which are scattered into various texts (see examples 1 – 4). The treatises which purposively deal with the subject of ‘The Influence of Peasant Music on Contemporary Art Music’ are of a special significance. They originated in the years from 1920 (a contribution for Melos and Sackbut) to 1943 (Harvard Lectures). Partial incongruences in categorization of many findings regarding the influence of folk music on valuable art music are demonstrated and compared in two tables (see Table 1 and 2). Subsequently we try to track the chronologically changing subjects of Bartók’s theoretical exegeses. For instance, the interest in the issue of rhythm emerged in Bartók in 1930s and the idea of ‘polymodal chromatics’ based on the analyses of Edwin von der Nülls (1930) and opposing then fashionable polytonality emerged only in his third Harvard Lecture.

    SPURNÝ, Lubomír: Heinrich Schenker and Guido Adler
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 39, 2013, No. 4, pp. 354 – 358

    The contribution deals with the explication of the term ‘musical analysis’ at the end of the 19thand beginning of the 20 thcentury. The author points to a different usage of the term by Guido Adler and Heinrich Schenker. The mentioned differences are not conditioned only by generational gap or personal relations of both referred exponents, but mostly by different purposes for the usage of music-analytical probes. While for Adler analysis is an auxiliary method helping the description of the wider historical context of the style, school or creator of the epoch, Schenker uses it to express the extent of structural unity of particular compositions.

    DALOS, Anna: Ernő Lendvai and his Contemporaries. The Beginnings of Music Analysis in Hungary (1921 – 1955)
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 39, 2013, No. 4, pp. 359 – 365

    The Bartók interpretations of the music theoretician Ernő Lendvai (1925 – 1993) played a significant part in the formation of thinking about Bartók and new music in general in Hungary. Lendvai’s first book entitled Bartók’s Style and published in 1955 gave rise to violent debates among musicians. Moreover, his analytical methods and poetic explanations have continued to divide the community of musicians in Hungary to this day. Representatives of the ‘official’ musicology led by Bence Szabolcsi (1899 – 1973), the father figure of Hungarian musicology, rejected Lendvai’s theory from the beginning, while music teachers and composers regarded it as an inevitable point of departure of their Bartók-understanding. Hungarian composers such as Endre Szervánszky (1911 – 1977), Pál Járdányi (1920 – 1966), or the young György Ligeti (1923 – 2006) used Bartók’s Style as a textbook showing them how to compose up-to-date and, at the same time, analytically controlled music of equal or, what is more, considerably higher rank than contemporary Western serialism, though it is based on ‘natural laws’.

    My paper aims at demonstrating the music political situation and the underlying jockeying for positions that led to the so called ‘Lendvai-affair’, that is to the musicologists’ refusal of Lendvai’s theory. Besides, I would like to answer the following questions: 1) what kind of role did the analysis, notably the analysis of contemporary music and Bartók, play in Hungarian musicological literature, above all in the writings of Kodály’s pupils (György Kerényi, Antal Molnár, István Szelényi) before Lendvai’s appearance and 2) which were the original features of Lendvay’s theory making it suitable for a starting-point of the Hungarian composers’ experiments with new music?

    KRONES, Hartmut: Semantic Music Analysis and Its Historical and Semiological-linguistic Prospects
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 39, 2013, No. 4, pp. 366 – 375

    The belief that music should be considered a kind of ‘speech’ held true for the major part of European music history. Based on this a more or less generally valid vocabulary of semantic assignments or meanings existed and was spreading out. But it is difficult to ‘systemize’ this vocabulary for a description of some ‘overall meaning’ of music, as it should be based on a particular era and even on the creation of a particular composer. This is the reason why the Czech music semiotic team, member of which was also Jaroslav Jiránek, did not succeed to ‘find and record partial meanings’ independent of specific characteristics of the era when the given pieces originated. The necessity and usefulness of knowledge of the vocabulary of ‘semantic’ musical-rhetorical figures in their specific period appearance are proven by analyses of Anton Leopold Siebigk (apart from other analyses he analysed also the terzetto Soll ich dich, Teurer, nicht mehr sehn from Mozart’s The Magic Flute), Ernst Theodor August Hoffmann (Beethoven), Friedrich August Kanne (Mozart’s piano pieces), Warren Kirkendale (Beethoven’s Missa solemnis). Despite his primary ahistorical attitude even Eero Tarasti, who has accomplished the up-to-date semiotic analysis of the song Der Tod, das ist die kühle Nacht by Johannes Brahms, works with gesture-psychological vocabulary, which had developed from ancient music doctrines about symbols, and in the 19th century it evolved into a connotative-psychological vocabulary. The systemization of signs by modern semiotics has brought a number of new methods of semantic music analysis with itself, which are not based on the historically confirmed vocabulary. However, even contemporary semantic music analysis very often uses the terms which only insignificantly differ from semantic assignments – meanings – in traditional textbooks on music rhetoric and symbolism. This confirms the time independency of logic from its syntax, as well as legitimacy of new opinions, as long as they do not deny the semantic potential of music and do not ignore the historical dimension.

    CHALUPKA, Ľubomír: The Category of Musical Thinking in Jozef Kresánek’s Work
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 39, 2013, No. 4, pp. 376 – 384

    The development of Slovak musicologist Jozef Kresánek as a scientist headed towards the definition of the notion ‘musical thinking’ as a complex in which several disciplines of both systematic and historical musicology are combined. The impulses from Czech inter-war art science and aesthetics as well as basic works from German musicology served as a starting point for his own research. Starting with ethnomusicology he turned to both older and modern Slovak music history and his knowledge culminated in his book trilogy Základy hudobného myslenia (Fundamentals of Musical Thinking), Tonalita (Tonality), Tektonika (Tectonics) as well as an epilogue Hudba a človek (Music and Man). The outline of the subcategories of the ’musical thinking’ complex is demarcated by the intersection of historical-developmental conditions and changes, cultural and social environment, man’s attributes as a musically creative personality and the principles of order and organization, present in music. In harmony with the field of activity of stable principles and changeable norms Kresánek delineated three spheres: sonoristics, dynamism and thematic shapes, and presented their usage in special domains – in the development of tonality and tectonics.


    BREZINA, Pavol: Measurement of the Level of Speech Intelligibility and Other Acoustic Parameters in the Church of Mary Queen of Angels in Sádok
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 39, 2013, No. 4, pp. 385 – 393

    The Church of Mary Queen of Angels in Sádok belongs to the most important architectonic monuments in Slovakia. Its architecture comprises several styles from the Roman style to the 20th century. The decaying church was repaired several times during the 20 th century and an extensive research and renovation has been taking place since 2002 thanks to the non-governmental organization Slovacia Incognita. Acoustic research of the object contributes to the complex research and is aimed at a preservation of the acoustics of the place as an immaterial cultural heritage. The acoustic research was oriented on the level of speech intelligibility through two measured parameters – Speech Transmission Index (STI) and the rate of speech clarity C50. Apart from these parameters, others were also measured according to the norm STN EN ISO 3382. An accurate acoustic model of the space was created, which can be used in post production recording studios.

    KRÁL, Vladimír: Digital Editions and Hypermedia Music Archives
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 39, 2013, No. 4, pp. 394 – 412

    The rapid development of information and communications technologies (ICT) in the recent 20 years has been manifested also in the realm of musicology. The influence of new ICT is displayed especially in the usage of notation softwares, enabling a swift publication of music materials in digital formats such as PDF (Portable Document Format) or XML (Extensible Markup Language). The modern ICT enabled also the origination of online databases of music-historical sources, the launch of various digitization initiatives, or the development of softwares for optic recognition and musical analysis. The next logical step should be the preparation of digital editions of music-historical sources.

    The first part of the study deals with the digital editions in the field of literary science. First we discuss three important technologies with the greatest influence on the transition from printed editions to the digital editions. The first technology is markup language. The purpose of the technology is to enrich the text with additional data – mostly concerning the significance, structure, or the way of depiction of particular sections of the text in digital environment. The next technology is the mass digitization starting in the early 1990s. The last technology is the hypertext enabling the non-linear arrangement of the text, whose particular parts are mutually joined by hyperlinks.

    The following part of the contribution deals with the issue of the book format and the restrictions connected to the preparation of the editions in such format and the possibilities of their solution. The starting point of our reflection is the study The Rationale of Hypertext by Jerome McGann. For McGann the solution is the hyperedition, resulting in a critical fully interconnected hypermedia archive. The hypermedia archive consists of virtual copies of accumulated sources mutually interconnected by hypertext links, annotations with critical and contextual data and analytical tools enabling the search and comparison in the processed material.

    Closing the first section of the study we present some examples of the hypermedia archives in the realm of literary science (The Walt Whitman Archive, The Shakespeare Quartos Archive, The Canterbury Tales Project and Rossetti Archive).

    The second section of the study is focused on the proposal of the concept of digital edition and hypermedia archive of music. In its introduction we deal with the problems of traditional music editions and music editorship, the solution to which may be provided exactly by creation of digital editions and hypermedia music archives.

    The following part of the study concentrates on the music projects which are in themselves the first trials in the creation of such editions (Computerized Mensural Music Edition, The Caron Web Site, Digital Mozart Ausgabe, Online Chopin Variorum Edition, Bratislava Antiphonaries I – V). We present the definition of the terms digital edition and hypermedia archive.

    The next part presents the proposal of hypermedia music archive. In this section we suggest the particular model of the hypermedia archive with everything it should include. We base it on the abovementioned study by Jerome McGann and the requirements of musicology on the critical editions preparation. Following that, we attempt to propose a systematic division of various kinds of hypermedia archives and digital music editions.

    Closing the study we present some advantages and disadvantages brought by this concept of processing the music-historical sources and we conclude that despite certain disputable points (copyrights, fundings, etc.) the way of processing the music-historical sources as hypermedia archives and digital editions appears presently as the most effective, most current model answering the time and context.

    POPOVA, Inna: Music Culture of the Transcarpathia in the Past and at Present
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 39, 2013, No. 4, pp. 413 – 420

    Music of the Transcarpathia is closely connected to the awakening of the national awareness at the turn of the 20th century, which comprised three evolutional periods – the awakening (19 th century and beginning of the 20 th century), the enlightenment (1920 – 1930) and liberation period (1940s). All three periods wittness the development of music, to which many institutions contributed (e.g. Music-Ethnographic Cabinet, Russian Theatre, New Scene, philharmony and others), private and public schools and associations (e.g. Carpatho-Rusyn Society, association Hoverl etc.). The Transcarpathian composing school began to form in the 1940s. Its founders were Dezider Zador (1912 – 1985) and István Márton (1923 – 1996). Later Viktor Teličko (1957) became one of important music pioneers and at present a number of other composers participate in the development of music in Transcarpathia: Josif Bazel (1932), Vasily Gajduk (1938), Vladimir Volontyr (1956), Viktor Janco (1978) and Roman Medencij (1981).


    DOHNALOVÁ, Lýdia: CD Jevgenij Iršai: Odnikiaľ s láskou
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 39, 2013, No. 4, pp. 421 – 422

    [The contribution is available only in Slovak language in the printed version of the revue.]

    DOHNALOVÁ, Lýdia: CD Marcel Štefko – piano
    In: Slovenská hudba, Vol. 39, 2013, No. 4, pp. 423 – 424

    [The contribution is available only in Slovak language in the printed version of the revue.]